Electricity and Magnetism
Students learn about electricity by building and testing circuits. Using batteries, bulbs and wires, students construct simple circuits and test the effects of various modifications. Through such tests, they discover that a circuit requires a closed pathway for electricity and that some materials conduct electricity and others do not. They learn that an electric current can affect a nearby magnet and that this property of electricity is used in making electromagnets and motors. Potential dangers are examined, as students learn about the safe use of electricity.
Electricity occurs naturally and has been observed for thousands of years. It is made up of microscopic electrons. They move and carry an electrical charge.
It is hard to explain because it is something that we cannot see. It is unlikely that anyone will properly see electricity because the electrons, which it is made of, are so small.
We use electricity every day, in objects all around us.
Electricity can produce heat, light, sound, computations, and movement.
How is it Made?
Electricity is made when electrons move from one atom to another.
One billion electrons can fit into the ball that is at the tip of a ballpoint pen!
Types of Electricity Include:
Electricity flows just like water from a hose. The flowing electricity is called an electrical current. Currents of electricity flow through power lines, transformers and through wires in our homes.
- Do not create an electrical octopus!!! - Only use the number of plug-ins provided
- Always unplug electrical devices before cleaning or repairing
- Never put your finger in an empty socket
- Always replace damaged cords
- Fly kites in open spaces only!
- Never run cords under heavy furniture
- Never touch loose wires
- Never use electricity by water
- Do not climb trees by power lines
- Only electrical plugs go into wall outlets!
- Only use batteries for experimentation NEVER current electricity
Understanding Electric Circuits
For current to flow through a circuit,
a continuous loop of conducting materials are required.
To Conduct or Not to Conduct!!!
We tested materials to see if they were conductors or insulators. We used a light bulb wrapped in tinfoil and the tinfoil attached to a battery. We placed the light on top of the material which was on topof the battery. If it was a conductor the light bulb would light up, if it was a insulator the light bulb would not light up. We tested paper clips, marbles, rubber bands, pennies, erasers, nails, and nickels.
Interested in learning an even more in-depth understanding
of circuits and electricity?
Checkout Residential Electrical Circuits Explained
They have great links to expand your understanding and discover even more like: Who discovered Electricity? Understanding your Circuit, and Potato Power!!! And so much more like GAMES!!!
Big Thank You to Stacey Martin andLyndhurst STEM Club for Girls! I love the feedback and am so thankful that you were willing to share!
Thank you so much Girls!
Burning Coal to Generate Electricity
©The NEED Project
We are going to compare electricity to a garden hose with a nozzle. Voltage is the pressure(force) of electricity that is inside an electric wire, just like water in a garden hose. We measure voltage in volts (V). Once the switch (tap) is turned on a certain amount of electric “pressure” (voltage) is available to be used. There are two electric wires that carry 120 volts in Alberta homes. All electric appliances use 120 or 240 volts of electricity.
Amperage (amps)measures the electric current (the number of electrons that move through a wire). Amperage can be compared to the spray of water coming out of a garden hose. The nozzle can be opened just a little bit and spray a little or opened a lot and spray lots! Some electric appliances, such as light bulbs, require small amperage of electricity to operate. While larger devices like hair dryers require more amperage.
House Hold Electrical Meters
Efficiency Labels on Electrical Appliances
Many people have older fridges or freezers in their houses. Many of these older electrical devices use tons of power! Since 1978, the federal government has been helping Canadians buy energy efficient appliances. Most major appliances sold in Canada must display anEnerGuide label. This label states the amount of electricity that the appliance will typically use in one year. The lower the number, the less electricity the appliance uses!
TheENERGY STARsymbol can be found on qualifying appliances or can form part of the EnerGuide label. This international symbol identifies specific models that meet or exceed premium levels of energy efficiency.
What's the Difference?
In a parallel circuit each of the bulbs (loads) are directly connected to the power source which means if a bulb is removed or burnt out, the other bulb will still work.
In a series circuit each of the bulbs (loads) are connected in a circle or one path. This means if a bulb is removed or burnt out the connection is damaged and none of the lights will light.
Experiments! Games! More!
Practice your Circuit Knowledge
Types of Circuits
What we will be learning:
1. About some of the potential dangers involved in using sources of electrical currents and that household electrical currents are potentially dangerous and not a suitable source for experimentation. Small batteries are a relatively safe source of electricity, for experimentation and study, but that care should be taken to avoid short circuits. Short circuits may cause wires to heat up, as well as waste the limited amount of energy in batteries.
2. To demonstrate that electricity can be used to create magnetism anda moving magnet can be used to generate electricity.
3. To demonstrate and interpret evidence of magnetic fields around magnets and around current-carrying wires, by use of iron filings or by use of one or more compasses.
4. To demonstrate that a continuous loop of conducting material is needed for an uninterrupted flow of current in a circuit.
5. How to distinguish electrical conductors—materials that allow electricity to flow through them— from insulators—materials that do not allow electricity to flow through them.
6. To recognize and demonstrate that some materials, including resistors, are partial conductors of electricity.
7. To predict the effect of placing an electrical resistance in a simple circuit; e.g., in a circuit with a light bulb or electric motor.
8. To recognize that the amount of electricity we use in our homes is measured in kilowatt hours.
9. To interpret and explain: • the reading on a household electrical meter • efficiency labels on electrical appliances.
10. To draw and interpret, with guidance, circuit diagrams that include symbols for switches, power sources, resistors, lights and motors.
Electricity is basically the presence and motion of charged particles. On the other hand, magnetism refers to the force which the magnets exert when they attract or repel each other. Thus, we see how different they are from each other.How do you pass electricity and magnetism? ›
- Make proper use of Kirchoff's Laws: ...
- Getting the direction right: ...
- Try to get a perspective from Energy Conservation: ...
- Understand Things at a Microscopic Level: ...
- Uniqueness Theorems: ...
- Understand the concept of induced EMF properly: ...
- Practice a lot in Magnetics:
Magnetism is the force exerted by magnets when they attract or repel each other. Magnetism is caused by the motion of electric charges. Every substance is made up of tiny units called atoms. Each atom has electrons, particles that carry electric charges.What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism choose the best answer? ›
Electricity and magnetism are closely related. Flowing electrons produce a magnetic field, and spinning magnets cause an electric current to flow. Electromagnetism is the interaction of these two important forces.What are examples of electricity and magnetism? ›
To demonstrate that an electric current (i.e., moving electric charge) generates a magnetic field, all you need do is simply place a magnetic compass next to a wire in a circuit. When current is passed through the wire, the compass will deflect, indicating the presence of a magnetic field circling the wire.What is the main difference between electricity and magnetism? ›
The major difference between electricity and magnetism is their presence. Electricity can be present in a static charge, while magnetism's presence is only felt when there are moving charges as a result of electricity.Why is electricity and magnetism important in our daily life? ›
We use electricity to power computers and to make motors go. Magnetism makes a compass point North and keeps notes stuck onto our refrigerators. Without electromagnetic radiation we would all be in the dark, for light is one of its many forms!What are electricity and magnetism _____ to each other? ›
electric field and magnetic field are perpendicular to each other.How does electricity magnetism work? ›
Here's how it works: A magnetic field pulls and pushes electrons in certain objects closer to them, making them move. Metals like copper have electrons that are easily moved from their orbits. If you move a magnet quickly through a coil of copper wire, the electrons will move - this produces electricity.