Environmental Pollution: Cause, Types, and Effects | Free Paper Examples (2023)


Currently, the quality of air, water, and fertility of land has deteriorated massively following the overwhelming pollutants deposited continuously on them. The world is expressing various challenges ranging from health-related problems to the death of marine life due to the increasing rate of pollution. There are several elements that contribute to the growing contamination across the globe. The value of human life is at risk since most of the effluents contaminate the resources people use on a daily basis. Understanding the cause, types, and effects of pollution is essential for formulating proper and measurable approaches to control the impacts on humans, plants, and aquatic lives.

Definition and Types of Pollution

Generally, pollution is the overall introduction of harmful elements known as pollutants into air, water, or land, which cause a devastating impact on the natural environment. Some of the responsible contaminants include chemical, physical, and biological elements (Wilkinson et al.). The substances might exist in the form of gas, liquid, solid, heat, and radioactive affluence, which cannot be easily decomposed, diluted, or dispersed. The key types of environmental pollution are land, water, and air. However, noise, plastic, and light are considered harmful to the well-being of the ecosystem.

Causes of Pollution

Industrial Emission

The ever-growing number of manufacturing industries worldwide emits massive contaminants into the air, which significantly impacts the quality of atmospheric air. Some of the pollutants being released by industrial activities include Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The substance exists in the form of tiny particles that float in the air. Most companies use coal and wood during production processes, thus making them generate a high number of such wastes.

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Transportation Activities

Recently, there has been a rise in the movement of people and commodities across the globe. Various means of transport such as vehicles, trains, airplanes, and ships are being used to facilitate the locomotion process. The vessels constantly rely on and use fusil fuels to provide them with the required energy. Through the process, they release harmful by-products such as greenhouse gases which contaminate the air. Similarly, most of the trucks used are heavy, causing massive soil erosion. Steamers as well spill oil waste into the marine leading to pollution of the environment (Wilkinson et al.). Therefore, all aspects associated with transportation activities contribute to a large percentage of ecosystem contamination.

Agricultural Activities

The adoption of various farming activities such as the use of pesticides, herbicides, and other inorganic fertilizers releases different chemical substances that contaminate both soil and water. When such elements are sprayed, they find their way into various water bodies such as dams, lakes, and oceans, where they negatively affect the environmental system. Moreover, when it rains, the running water washes animals’ waste products which contain high content of nitrogen, into sources of water, thus polluting them.

Fast Fashion Clothing

Currently, most textile industries have adopted the production of synthetic clothes. Most of the apparel is cheap, making consumers purchase large quantities they do not intend to use. This aspect has led to an increase in the number of unused clothes. Most people discard the materials into the environment, causing land pollution. Furthermore, some families have the tendency to burn the old fast fashion items hence causing significant air pollution because they are made of inorganic products.

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Mining Activities

The extraction of various valuable resources such as gold, copper, sand, stones, and limestone leaves the land surfaces open and destructed. The mining process involving deep underground activities increases the chances of landmass collapse, which can negatively affect the well-being of plants and animals. Similarly, the dust particles associated with the processes make the surrounding air have poor quality. The machines used operate with fuel products hence releasing the unwanted wastes into the air.

Effects of Unchecked Pollution

Global Warming

When people do not take into consideration the need to regulate the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, the likelihood of facing unbearable weather patterns will be high. Various activities such as agriculture and fishing will collapse, making human lives become pathetic. The ocean water level will rise, making it difficult for people living in the coastal regions to have peaceful habitats for living.

Death of Animals

Most animals and plants are victimized by the chemical compounds of pollution. For instance, when excessive pesticides and herbicides are washed into water bodies, aquatic lives such as fishes and turtles might consume the particles, which is not healthy for their well-being. The consumption of such substances will make the animals and plants die easily. Therefore, if the level of such contamination remains unchecked, several aquatic and land animal species will disappear from the planet.

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Increasing Health Condition

Most cities and countries across the world have a large number of industries that emit carbon and other chemical particles. When such substances are mixed with air, they find their way into the respiratory system causing severe clogging. People in such surroundings cannot easily breathe and hence face critical health conditions (Glencross et al. 60). Moreover, if not properly checked, some of the chemicals might lead to the death of individuals, primarily in the urban centers with a large number of manufacturing plants, due to increased cases of lung cancer and heart diseases.

Need to Use Commercial Oxygen

Generally, when governments and people across the globe fail to take appropriate measures to reduce the rate of air pollution, human beings will be forced to use oxygen kits in order to breathe effectively. Continuous release of harmful gases and particles in the air will make the atmosphere become poisonous hence making the free oxygen gas unsuitable for breathing. The aspect will complicate life for the majority of people who will not be able to access and afford the necessary items to support the use of quality oxygen.

Land Infertility

When inorganic fertilizers are cautiously applied to improve soil fertility, the likelihood of the land losing its fertility will be high. Infertile land cannot support the growth of plants; hence the surface will remain bare and exposed to other agents of pollution (Rodríguez-Eugenio et al.). Similarly, the various chemicals released by factories into water sources further infiltrate into the soil lowering the overall productivity, thus rendering land useless for farming activities.

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Culprits and Why They Pollute

The main culprits of pollution are manufacturing industries, farmers, transporters, and miners. They mainly contaminate the environment to increase the country’s production of goods and services. The need to supply products, demand for houses and other valuable commodities prompt the offenders to engage in such activities. In addition, the desire for wealth makes the criminals care less about the side effects of their actions, making their overall activities harmful to the well-being of plants and animals.


In summary, there are various factors causing the rate of environmental pollution to rise. The contamination of air, water, and land has negative impacts on the lives of animals and plants. Activities such as transportation, manufacturing process, and agricultural practices contribute massively to the degradation of the system. When the level of affluence remains unchecked, the likelihood of facing the gruesome effects of global warming will be high. The key culprits of pollution include transporters, miners, and manufacturers.

Works Cited

Glencross, Drew A., et al. “Air Pollution and its Effects on the Immune System.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 151 (2020): 56-68.

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Rodríguez-Eugenio, Natalia, Michael McLaughlin, and Daniel Pennock. Soil pollution: A Hidden Reality. FAO, 2018.

Wilkinson, John L., et al. “Pharmaceutical Pollution of the World’s Rivers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 119, no. 8, 2022.


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