In the fastpaced world of nursing, the ability to perform accurate medication calculations is a nonnegotiable skill. Whether you're a nursing student preparing for the NCLEX or a seasoned nurse facing the challenge of manual dosage calculations, this guide will equip you with the knowledge and techniques needed to ensure patient safety.
The Five Rights of Medication Administration
Every nurse is familiar with the cornerstone principles of medication administration:
 Right Patient
 Right Drug
 Right Dose
 Right Route
 Right Time
While technology has introduced automated systems to reduce errors, the importance of manual calculations cannot be overstated. In emergencies, power failures, or as a final accuracy check, nurses must rely on their fundamental calculation skills.
Universal Formula Method
The "desired over have" formula is a lifesaver in medication calculations. Three key components guide you through the process:
 Desired amount (D): The prescribed dose in milligrams, grams, milliliters, etc.
 Amount on hand (H): The available dose or concentration.
 Form and amount of the drug (V or Q): The volume (V) or quantity (Q) in tablets, capsules, or liquid.
Practice Questions

Scenario: The prescription is 8.0 mg IM, and the vial label reads "10 mg/mL." Calculate the dose:
Answer: 0.80 mL in the syringe. 
Scenario: Warfarin dosage increased from 5 mg to 7.5 mg PO daily. Calculate the tablets needed:
Answer: Instruct the client to take 1.5 tablets daily. 
Scenario: Acetaminophen suppository prescribed for a fever. Calculate the suppositories required:
Answer: Administer 3 suppositories. 
Scenario: Digoxin 0.5 mg IV prescribed, and the concentration is 0.25 mg/mL. Calculate the required volume:
Answer: Administer 2 mL of digoxin.
Dimensional Analysis Method
For problems involving different units, dimensional analysis (DA) proves invaluable. Convert all measurements to equivalent units, solving problems without the need for specific formulas.
Example Calculation
Scenario: Omeprazole 40 mg PO bid prescribed, but only 20 mg capsules are available. Calculate the number of capsules needed:
Answer: Administer 2 capsules.
Practice Questions

Scenario: Nystatin oral suspension prescribed as 250,000 units PO q 6 hr. Calculate the dose in mL:
Answer: Administer 2.5 mL for each dose. 
Scenario: Heparin 6,789 units subcutaneously prescribed with a concentration of 10,000 units/mL. Calculate the volume:
Answer: Draw up and administer 0.7 mL. 
Scenario: Ringer's Lactose prescribed for infusion. Calculate the IV pump flow rate:
Answer: Set the IV pump to 76.5 mL/hr. 
Scenario: Streptomycin 1.25 mg/lb IM prescribed for a 64 kg client. Calculate the volume to be administered:
Answer: Administer 1.16 mL.
Tips for Medication Calculations
 Always ensure clinical sense in dosages.
 Doublecheck calculations for accuracy.
 When in doubt, verify with the pharmacy.
Intravenous (IV) Infusion Calculations
Administering intravenous fluids involves additional calculations, including drop rates and infusion times. While IV pumps aid in maintaining a steady infusion rate, manual calculations remain crucial.
Drip Rate Formula
Drip rate involves converting infusion volume into drops. The formula is straightforward:
[ \text{Drip Rate} = \frac{\text{Infusion Volume (mL)}}{\text{Time to Run (h)}} ]
Practice Questions

Scenario: Infuse 1 L of D5/.45% NS over 18 h. Calculate the flow rate:
Answer: The flow rate is 55.5 mL/hr. 
Scenario: Infuse 1 L of D5/0.9% NS over 8 h. Determine the hourly rate for the infusion pump:
Answer: Set the infusion pump at 125 mL/h. 
Scenario: Infuse 779,123 mcL of 0.9% Normal Saline over 14.2 h. Calculate the flow rate:
Answer: Set the IV infusion pump to 54.9 mL/hr. 
Scenario: Decrease IV infusion rate to 50 mL/hr with 250 mL remaining. Calculate completion time:
Answer: The infusion will be complete at 2:30 pm.
Calculating Drip Rates in Drops
IV drop factors, reflecting tubing set sizes, play a role in calculating infusion rates in drops per minute (dpm).
[ \text{Drip Rate (dpm)} = \frac{\text{Volume of IV Fluid (mL)} \times \text{Drop Factor (gtts/mL)}}{\text{Time to Run (h)} \times 60} ]
Practice Questions

Scenario: Infuse 1 L of normal saline over 10 hours with a drop factor of 20 gtts/mL. Determine the drops per minute:
Answer: Manually adjust the IV tubing for 33 gtts/min. 
Scenario: Monitor an infusion of D5/0.45% NS at 120 mL/hr with a drop factor of 15 gtts/mL. Set the IV pump at what drip rate?
Answer: The drip rate is 30 gtts/min. 
Scenario: Administer two 250 mL units of packed red blood cells over 4 hours. Calculate the IV flow rate:
Answer: The flow rate is 31 gtts/min. 
Scenario: Infuse 300 mL of ampicillin sodium over 40 minutes with a drop factor of 20 gtts/mL. Set the IV pump at what rate?
Answer: Set the pump at 150 gtts/min.
The Key to Success: Practice, Practice, Practice!
Mastering medication calculations is not just a professional requirement; it's a critical aspect of patient safety. Practice these calculations regularly to ensure you're the reliable final checkpoint in the administration of medications and IV fluids.
About the Author:
Winona Suzanne Ball
Nursing Adviser, RN  MHS, Governors State University, IL
Full member of the American Nurses Association.
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